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Neurology » Brain Diseases

Different Brain Diseases and What Causes Them

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The human brain is a sensitive organ that stands vulnerable to various disorders and infections. Since it also your body’s master organ.

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any defect up there can cause problems all over the body, like cognitive impairment, muscular issues, constant fatigue and fainting episodes, personalities changes, breathing disorders, etc.

Brain disorders stem from various causes. These include trauma, tumours, pressure on different brain parts, infections, vascular abnormalities and disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions.

Neurodegenerative Brain Conditions

IF the nerve cells in your brain begin malfunctioning, the cognitive efficiency suffers, causing dementia. Alzheimer's is the most frequently occurring form of dementia. 

In Alzheimer's, the brain nerves die, tissue loss follows, and the area containing cerebrospinal fluid gets bigger than usual. A degenerative brain condition, stroke, or alcohol abuse may cause it. Speech, memory, and comprehension impairment are its most visible signs.

In Parkinson's disease, the central brain’s nerves degrade. It affects movement and coordination. In Huntington’s disease, dementia and movement coordination get disturbed because of an inherited nerve condition.

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) is the destruction of nerves that control muscle function. Breathing inability and paralysis follow ALS. Although, cognitive functionality remains intact mostly.

Frontotemporal dementia (Pick’s disease) is the accumulation of an abnormal protein on the sides and in the front of the brain. This progressive disease ends up causing personality changes, memory faults, speech issues, and inappropriate behaviour.

Autoimmune Brain Conditions

Inflamed blood vessels in the brain cause Vasculitis. The patient feels confused, gets frequent seizures, headaches, and fainting episodes.

Multiple Sclerosis is another brain disease of autoimmune origin. The immune system perceives the nerves as a threat and sets to destroy them, causing fatigue, weakness, muscle spasms, etc.

Brain Diseases Caused by Infections

Brain abscess is the formation of an infection pocket inside the brain. It is caused by bacteria and requires surgical drainage to clean the pocket.

A viral infection may cause brain tissue inflammation, called as encephalitis. Meningitis is caused by inflammation around the brain or spinal cord lining. When the two occur at once, it's called meningoencephalitis.

Brain Diseases of Tumour and Pressure

A brain tumour is an abnormal growth inside the brain. Cancerous or not, tumours exert pressure on the organ and can cause various nasty consequences.

Hydrocephalus is a congenital condition where the cerebrospinal fluid quantity rises to abnormal levels. The skull is enlarged, the brain nerves are suppressed, and neural tissue gets destroyed by this condition. Normal pressure hydrocephalus may cause urinary incontinence, uncoordinated walking, dementia, etc.

Glioblastoma is caused by star shaped brain cells called astrocytes. This cancer mostly starts in the cerebrum, can grow and spread fast, and are characterised by seizures, vomiting, mood swings, blurred vision, and problems with speech.

Sometimes, a person exhibits all signs of a tumour, with apt symptoms that a skull with increased pressure produces and no apparent cause behind it. It is called Pseudotumor cerebri and may cause nausea, dizziness, vision changes, etc.

Brain Disorders Rising from Trauma

Head injuries may cause concussions. Confusion, unconsciousness, headaches, and a temporary memory lapse are a few common indicators of a concussion.

If the injury is severe, the subsequent traumatic brain injury may cause mood changes, subtle personality alterations, and permanent brain damage. Internal bleeding in the brain could cause intracerebral haemorrhage. 

Vascular Brain Conditions

A cerebrovascular attack in the brain, or a stroke, may happen if a part of the human brain stops receiving adequate oxygen and blood. The tissues begin deteriorating and die eventually. The functionalities that the particular brain part controls are affected depending on the degree of degradation.

When the stroke happens because of a blood clot blocking blood flow to the brain, it's called Ischemic stroke. When it occurs because of bleeding inside the brain which poisons the healthy blood flow, it’s called a Hemorrhagic stroke.

In a brain aneurysm, one of the many brain arteries develop a swelling. If the swollen artery section ruptures, it could result in bleeding and stroke. The brain tissue swells in a cerebral oedema.

Bleeding that occurs outside the brain but inside the skull causes a subdural hematoma. The accumulated blood exerts pressure on the brain and could become fatal if left untreated or undiagnosed.

In an epidural hematoma, blood pours in between the skull and the outer CNS membrane called dura mater. This bleeding is a result of arterial tear whereas the bleeding in subdural hematoma is caused by cracks in the bridging veins.

Brain Seizures

Excessive electrical activity in the brain, which often is abnormal, may cause epilepsy. Epilepsy is characterised by sudden and recurrent seizures, convulsions, and fainting. This neurological disorder could be genetic or acquired after a stroke, infection, or trauma.

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