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Pediatric » Pediatric Orthopedics

Understanding Pediatric Vital Signals- a Guide for Mothers

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Vitals of a human is the measure of their pulse, blood pressure, temperature, and respiratory rate. The information a doctor gains from the vital signs of a person helps in determining the overall health status of the patient.


Every vital sign's measurement has a standard value. For instance, the average pulse rate for a human adult lies between 60 to 100 beats in one minute. This value will differ if a child is in question.

The thresholds that we consider reasonable for the vitals of an adult don’t often apply to children. If you are bringing your little one to the doctor, and are worried about their lower or higher BP, or pulse rate, or any other vital signs, than it should have been, you ought to know a few facts before you panic.

Average Vitals for an Infant

The heart rate of an infant is much higher than that of an adult. Their breathing rates also vary and are usually greater than that of adults.

For a newborn who is less than a month old, the average heart rate is 85 to 190. Between one and twelve months of age, a regular pulse should be 90 to 180. The average temperature for newborns is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit and the breathing rate for the same falls between 30 to 60 times in one minute.

The ideal blood pressure for up to one month after birth is 67-84 systolic and 31-45 diastolic. For within a year after birth, the average BP is 72-104 systolic and 37-56 diastolic.

Reasons behind the Varying Values

The heart muscles stretch and regain their shape continuously to beat. In an infant, these muscles aren’t very much developed. It's hard for a child’s heart to stretch very much because the immature muscles pose a problem. The heart starts hammering at a faster rate to compensate for the inability to expand properly, thus pumping the necessary amount of blood through the body.

It is why the heart rate of an infant is both quicker and irregular at times. With increasing age, the muscles also develop, become stronger, and become able to move blood through the body with active stretching and contracting, thus reducing the need for the heart to beat faster.

When to Be Alarmed?

If the vitals of your infant varies in either direction of the given values, it could be a matter of concern. The could be many reasons for a slow heart rate. The child could not be getting enough oxygen, be experiencing effects from medication, be suffering from low body temperature, or a congenital heart condition.

It is better to raise questions and gather every possible detail about the kid’s health when the vitals reasonably differ from the age-appropriate levels.

Vital Signs of Children at Different Ages

Age in Years/Vitals

Blood Pressure( Systolic # Diastolic)

Breathing Rate (breaths per minute)

Pulse (beats per minute)

Temperature (degrees Fahrenheit)

Toddlers (1 to 2)





Preschoolers (3 to 5)





School age (6 to 11)





Adolescents (12 and beyond)





How to Tell Apart between Health Scenarios Using Temperature in Children

As you must have noticed, be it an infant, toddler, or adolescent, the average normal temperature never buzzes from 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. This temperature, however, can fluctuate because of many reasons. Exercise, taking a bath, hormonal changes, weather changes are all factors that result in differing temperatures of the body throughout the day.

A child’s temperature can be taken in various places. The temperature from each area of the body will differ, which is why the markers of fever vary as well.

In the armpit, a temperature of 99 degrees Fahrenheit means a fever. This value is 99.5 degrees F for ear, oral, and pacifier readings, and 100.4 degrees F for rectal reading.


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